A community’s emergency response plan should be created with the goal of preventing or reducing threats to life, health, the economy, and property. When creating it, keep in mind the “do no harm” principle of No Adverse Impact and avoid approaches that protect one piece of property at the cost of another (for example, installing an emergency seawall on one piece of property that increases erosion to abutting properties).
Emergency response plans should be periodically updated, and drills should be regularly conducted. Each emergency response plan should be tailored to the needs and capacity of a particular community. To minimize confusion during chaotic events, plans should specify: 1) what is to be done, 2) in what order, and 3) who is responsible for doing it. While each community has its own organizational make-up, typical response plans include:
- Activating the emergency operations center and securing communications
- Closing the openings in flood walls or barriers, where applicable
- Providing early warning to critical facilities
- Changing traffic flow on evacuation routes and closing hazardous streets and bridges
- Providing early warnings to marinas and harbormasters to expedite hauling boats out of the water or relocating them to safer places
- Making evacuation decisions
- Providing people with directions to safe emergency evacuation routes
- Providing and publicizing the availability of transportation including mass transit to evacuate people without vehicles
- Monitoring water levels
- Holding children at school or releasing them from school
- Opening evacuation centers
- Providing security for evacuated areas
- Informing the public about health and safety precautions
To learn how to create a disaster response plan, see the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) detailed Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Operations Planning (PDF, 602 KB). This guide offers FEMA’s best recommendations on how to deal with the entire planning process—from forming a planning team to writing the plan. Communities should closely coordinate with the Governor’s Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness.
* Your community needs only 500 points to qualify for reduced flood insurance premiums through the Community Rating System (CRS). For more information (including how to apply for the CRS program), see our Community Rating System (CRS) primer.
Notes from the folks at CRS:
“Disaster Response Plans may receive credit under Activity 610, Flood Warning Program. Prerequisites for the credit include the presence of a flood threat recognition system and emergency warning dissemination to the general public.”